The Economics of Immigration
19/04/2013 13 comentarios
Better Living Standards. Despite discussion to the contrary, best available economic evidence suggests that immigration expands economic opportunities and incomes of Americans and helps reduce budget deficit. Recent research suggests immigration raises wages and lowers prices for consumers throughout economy. For the American business owners, immigrants are both new sources of customers+employees, helping to expand production using American resources + know-how in sectors ranging from farming to technology. For American workers data suggest rather than competing for identical jobs, immigrants tend to work alongside and in support of American workers, creating more and better job opportunities. Graph (below) summarizes two sets of results from recent cutting-edge economics research on the impact of immigration on wages. Both show small but positive effects of immigration on the American wages as a whole. The evidence becomes more mixed, though, when looking at specific groups of workers. While some studies show large negative impacts of immigration on low-skill workers (purple bars), other estimates find that immigration raises the wages of all U.S. workers, regardless of education (blue bars). As further evidence supporting second set of findings, one study that examines a period of rapid immigration finds immigrants do not cause declines in wages, even among less-skilled residents. Most studies also find over time immigrants improve the finances of programs like Social Security and can actually help reduce the budget deficit. And these are only direct measured effects of immigration on individual wages, employment, budget. Immigrants, particularly higher-skilled immigrants, start more businesses and participate in scientific + other research at higher rates than native-born Americans. These other findings hint at additional potential benefits of more immigration, including increases in innovation could help boost overall economic growth. The high fraction of innovative Silicon Valley start-ups founded by immigrants are an important example of this point. These potential additional boosts to the economic growth are not necessary to make a case for more immigration. Evidence on the direct effects of immigration, higher wages, lower prices and net taxes, shows that immigration raises standards of living for Americans.